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August 7, 2023
August 7th, 2023

Quiz: What is the difference between a missile and a ballistic missile?

Yesterday’s answer below: What is an “eminence grise”.
History for 8/7/2023
Birthdays: Roman Emperor Constantius II, Revolutionary War General Nathanael Greene, Mata Hari, Rassan Rolling Kirk, Dr. Ralphe Bunche, Nicholas Ray, Dr. Richard Leakie, Grandma Moses, Stan Freberg, James Randi, Billy Burke aka Glenda the Good Witch, Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer, Garrison Keillor, Animator Rudy Ising, David Duchovny is 63, Charlize Theron is 48

1485- At Millbank harbor Wales, Henry Tudor landed with an army of knights to challenge King Richard III for the throne. Stepping on English soil, Henry dropped to his knees, raised his arms and exclaimed, “Judge me, oh Lord, on the righteousness of my cause!”

1620- The mother of astronomer Johannes Kepler was arrested for witchcraft.

1683-The Bagel was invented by a Jewish baker in Vienna as a tribute to Polish warrior King Jan III Sobieski, who had saved their city from Turkish attack. Bagel comes from the German word for stirrup, Bügel.

1782- General George Washington created the Order of the Purple Heart. The first U.S. medal.

1815- Prisoner Napoleon Bonaparte was transferred from the HMS Bellerophon to the HMS Northumberland for the voyage to Saint Helena. After his defeat at Waterloo the British public warmed up to Napoleon as an okay chap now down on his luck. While waiting in Plymouth Harbor curious crowds of English people would row out to wave hello at the fallen emperor. One enterprising citizen learned Napoleon’s schedule and from his rowboat would hold up a large sign "BONEY’S OUT ON DECK" to let the crowd know.

1819- Battle of Boyaca'- Simon Bolivar defeats the Royal Spanish army in the New World. He enters Bogota to proclaim the Republic of Columbia.

1834 -Death of Joseph Jacquard, French silk weaver who invented the first loom capable of weaving patterns. The cards used in the looms were the inspiration for the computer punch card, a way of transmitting data, whether pulses of light or lengths of wool.

1880- British Lord Roberts began the famous Retreat to Kandahar from Kabul. The British and Russians used Afghanistan as a political football for most of the 19th century. It was referred to as "The Great Game".

1882- The legendary hillbilly feud in Kentucky between the Hatfields and the McCoys began, supposedly over a prize hog. Ellison Hatfield was stabbed 26 times and shot in the back by Tolbert McCoy. The Hatfields then rounded up three McCoys and shot them. Over the next forty years, over 100 men, women, and children from both families would be killed.

1888- In Philadelphia, Theophilus van Kannel patented the revolving door.

1912 –After serving out murdered President William McKinley’s term, Teddy Roosevelt pledged he would only serve one full term of his own, then his successor Taft became President. TR came to regret this decision, so he ran for president anyway, even though the establishment GOP stayed with Taft. This day the Progressive Bull Moose Party nominated Theodore Roosevelt for president. 3rd Party candidate TR’s splitting the presidential ticket not only enabled democrat Woodrow Wilson to win the White House, but the Bull Moose movement drew off the progressive left wing of the Republican Party, causing the Party of Lincoln to drift to more the right.

1914-. This day German forces in Belgium capture the fortress city of Liege. It is the first success of General Eric Von Ludendorff, who drove up in a touring car, and banged on the city gates with his sword pommel.

1914 – The famous poster of Lord Kitchner pointing and saying "Your country needs you," spreads over the UK. James Montgomery Flagg later copied the poster for the American version with Uncle Sam in a similar pose. Lord Asquith commented that by now the elderly soldier Kitchener made "a better poster than a general."

1919- the First Actor’s Equity Strike.

1928- The US Treasury issued a smaller, leaner dollar bill. Before this dollars were two times larger and wider than the ones we now use.

1931 Jazz trumpeter Leon "Bix" Beiderbecke, died at 29 of drink and drugs. Bix along with his idol Louis Armstrong was considered one of the first jazz musicians to popularize the solo-riff, where in the body of a song the soloist would depart from the arrangement and improvise, like a cadenza in classical music. His family in Davenport Iowa were horrified that their son dropped out of school to associate with musicians and black people. Even after Bix was famous, he returned proudly home only to discover his parents had stacked up every record he sent them in a box under the stairs. They had never listened to a single one.

1933-The first "Alley-Oop" comic strip.

1942- GUADALCANAL BEGINS-10, 000 Marines landed on the Japanese held island in the first American offensive of World War II. Americans at home had to learn names like Tulagi, Savo Island, Gaivutu-Tanonbogo, Chesty Puller and Washing Machine Charlie as their loved ones slugged it out for six months in one of the most brutal battles of the Pacific War. The evenly matched Japanese and Americans went at each other with everything from bayonets to battleships. So many ships were sunk in the island’s lagoon that they nicknamed it "Ironbottom Sound".

1942-The first days aerial dogfights over Guadalcanal, Japanese fighter ace Saburo Sakai won fame for shooting down his 58th, 59th and 60th planes. In this days dogfight his Zero was badly shot up by Gruman F-4 Wildcats. Sakai was paralyzed on his left side and had one eye shattered by a bullet. Yet even in this state he managed to fly his plane 500 miles to home base safely. In the air for 8 1/2 hours, he said he would occasionally thrust a thumb into his eye wound to give himself a shot of pain to keep awake.
Sakai survived, fought at Iwo Jima in 1944, volunteered for Kamikaze duty,

but flew back with honor when he could find no suitable targets. He survived the war and wrote a best selling memoir- Zero Pilot. He died in 2000 at age 84.

1953- President Eisenhower granted Ohio statehood retroactively 150 years later. It seems when Ohio joined the union in 1803 Congress screwed up the enabling legislation so Ohio was never officially a state. Local historians were preparing for an anniversary celebration when they uncovered the glitch.

1963- Pres. John F. Kennedy and Jacky Kennedy tried to have one more baby, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, but he was born with a breathing disorder and died two days later.

1964-THE TONKIN GULF RESOLUTION-After the Tonkin Gulf Incident, President Johnson asked for permission to act in Vietnam without a formal declaration of war. Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution 93-2 in the Senate and 410-0 in the House to accelerate the U.S. combat troops role in Vietnam. President Johnson used the hotline to the Kremlin for the first time, to assure Premier Khrushchev that the US did not plan to expand their role in IndoChina- (?) The American commitment went from 30,000 to 450,000, trillions of dollars and eventually destroyed Cambodia and Laos as well. Congressman Mark Hatfield- "I can’t get over the feeling we’re making a big mistake."

1968- James Brown recorded “Say it Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud”, at the Vox Studios in Los Angeles. The single became a clarion call for the Black Power movement in the U.S.

1970 - Christine McVie joined the band Fleetwood Mac.

1970 – The first computer chess tournament.

1974- French daredevil Phillipe Petit strung a tightrope between the two 110 story towers of NY’s World Trade Center and walked across it. As New Yorkers watched in amazement, Petit kept his concentration by carrying on a conversation with the buildings.

1979- THE RUNAWAY WARS. Hollywood Cartoonist’s Union launched a strike against studios sending their animation jobs overseas.

1981- The Heavy Metal movie opened. Directed by Gerald Potterton.

1998- Simultaneous car bombs explode in front of the US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. It killed 100 and injured 2,200, many more innocent African bystanders than Americans. The bombs proved to be the work of the Al Qaeda organization.

2007- Leo Montulli, a programmer for Netscape, invented internet cookies. Do you accept them?
Yesterday’s Quiz: What is an “eminence grise”.

Answer: It means the power behind the throne. Someone who does not have an official position in the government yet exerts great influence on the leader. Like Clark Clifford was to Lyndon Johnson or Jared and Ivanka Trump was to Donald. From a friar who served as a scribe for the very powerful French Cardinal Richelieu. While he held no official position other than as a secretary, he had great influence with the Cardinal and was known to be instrumental in many religious and political decisions. Because he was a friar and not of the religious ruling orders, he wore grey robes, thus the nickname Eminence Grise (Grey Eminence). (FG)