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Oct. 18, 2023
October 18th, 2023

Question: What does it mean to be stoic?

Yesterday’s Question Answered below: What is the difference between India and Hindustan?.
History for 10/18/2023
Birthdays: Cannaletto, Lotte Lenya, Wynton Marsalis, George C. Scott, Pierre Trudeau, Lee Harvey Oswald, Mike Dytka, Peter Boyle, Inger Stevens, Violetta Chamorro, Wendy Wasserstein, Wynton Marsalis, Martina Navratilova, Zack Efron is 32, Jean Claude Van Damme, The Muscles from Brussels- is 63. Pixar Art Director Ralph Eggleston. Alex Williams.

FEAST OF ST. LUKE. According to ancient sources Luke was actually a physician, but Medieval tradition made him the protector of artists. This is because John of Damascus claimed to have seen Luke draw paintings of the Madonna. In Rome during the Renaissance, Titian, Michelangelo, Rubens and El Greco were members of the Guild of St. Luke and paid union dues.

31AD- Praetorian Prefect Lucius Sejanus, a onetime favorite of the Emperor Tiberius, fell from power and was executed for treason.

1016- A large force of Vikings defeated the Anglo-Saxon English at Ashingdon.

1534- French King Francis I, like his counterpart in England Henry VIII considered himself a Renaissance Prince who espoused toleration. He gave safe haven to Protestants fleeing Germany and was encouraged by the calls for reform of the Church. But this night an event happened to spoil it all. Overzealous French Protestants hung placards on doors in Paris and Orleans denouncing Catholics as "wolves and vermin". Francis awoke to find a placard hung his own bedroom door, with the implied a personal threat to kill him and his family as they slept.
Francis angrily ordered the arrests and the burning of heretics. At a solemn Mass in Notre Dame, the King swore he would behead any of his children who dared turn Protestant. This Affair of the Placards ruined any chance that the Protestant Reformation could grow in France peacefully.

1648- The First official union in the U.S. started, the Shoemakers Guild of Boston.

1776- Cato’s Road House, a colonial tavern New York City decorated with birds opened. The owner was a free black man named Cato Alexander. Customers ordered a favorite drink he created, called a "Cocks Tail" or cocktail. The origin of the name.

1767- The Mason-Dixon line settled the border between Pennsylvania and Maryland. In a later generation it became the symbol of the divide between North and South.

1781- For several days British positions at Yorktown Virginia were heavily bombarded by the heavy siege guns of George Washington and his ally the Comte du Rocheambeau. No area of the town was safe from bombardment. Thomas Nelson Jr., a signer of the Declaration of Independence, gave permission to target his own house, which the British were using as a headquarters. The British Navy had given up on a rescue and sailed off to Martinique for the winter. Today the cannons fell silent. A lone British drummer boy climbed up on an earthwork parapet and began beating the call to parley.

1793- Napoleon gets his first job. Sub-lieutenant Napoleon Bonaparte promoted to major of artillery and posted to Toulon. He was 24. At 25 he will be a General, at 31 a dictator, at 35 an Emperor, at 46 unemployed, and dead at 52. Sounds like a career in Hollywood.

1797- THE X,Y, Z AFFAIR- Throughout the wars between Napoleonic France and England each country tried to push the neutral United States into taking a side. This pressure came from harassing merchant trade and establishing heavy trade tariffs. This day war almost resulted between America and France when the American ambassadors in Paris were approached by three French diplomats, forever called X,Y and Z. This men said for a $250,000 cash bribe they would lift sanctions on trade. The American government was enraged, but war was averted. America finally went to war with Britain in 1812.

1813- FINAL DAY OF THE BATTLE OF THE NATIONS- Napoleon’s army at Liepzig was overwhelmed by the combined armies of Russia, Austria, Prussia and Sweden.
The French had to retreat through a burning city, then cross a deep river with only one bridge over it and the enemy shooting down on them. A nervous engineer blew up the bridge prematurely leaving a third of the army still on the wrong side.
The heroes of this terrible panic were Marshal Jacques MacDonald, son of an exiled Scotsman who fought for Bonnie Prince Charlie, and the son of the last king of Poland, Prince Josef Poniatowski, who, shot several times, drowned in the river. His remains were identified when fishermen discovered silver snuffboxes in his pockets. This battle forced Napoleon to abandoned most of his conquered territory in Central Europe fall back to the national borders of France.

1861- Poet and suffragette Julia Ward Howe was staying at the Willard Hotel down the block from the White House. She awoke in the middle of the night inspired to write new words to a popular soldiers tune she heard that day "John Brown's Body". She wrote "Mine Eyes have seen the Glory of the Coming of the Lord...." She called it "The Battle Hymn of the Republic"." Glory-Glory Halleluiah, His Truth is Marching On…"

1896- Joseph Pulitzer's N.Y. Journal American created the first Sunday Color Comics supplement.

1912- The First Balkan War- Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro attack Turkey in her remaining European territories.

1922- The British Broadcast Corp or BBC formed.

1922- In Hollywood Sid Grauman's Egyptian Theater opened.

1924- College football star Red Grange scored four long yardage touchdowns in one game.

1931- Thomas Edison died peacefully at age 84. His last words were-
"It's beautiful over there..."

1942- Admiral Nimitz appointed Admiral Bull Halsey to take command of the fleet locked in battle with the Japanese off Guadalcanal.

1946- Walt Disney premiered The Story of Menstruation.

1950- In a heated showdown in the Directors Guild all motions by Cecil B.DeMille and Frank Capra to adopt the anti-Communist blacklist were defeated. Billy Wilder, John Huston, John Ford and Mervyn LeRoy supported President Joe Mankiewicz who blocked the Blacklist Motions, and they also blocked a recall vote on Mankiewicz' s presidency.

1954- Hi & Lois comic strip debuted.

1967- Walt Disney's last animated feature done under his supervision "the Jungle Book." premiered. Disney had died the previous December. “Look for the Bear-Necessities…”

1974- Tobe Hooper's low budget cult film Texas Chainsaw Massacre first opened. Despite one film critic calling it " a bunch of sick crap" it became a huge hit.

1977- New York Yankee batter Reggie Jackson earned the name Mr. October by slugging three home runs in a World Series Game against the LA Dodgers.

1982- President Reagan said during a radio address:" My Fellow Americans, the economy is in a helluva mess....this microphone isn't on, is it?.."

1984- Handsome young television star John Eric Hexum died after shooting himself with a prop pistol. Even though it was loaded with blanks the concussion of compressed air at close range cracked his skull. He was playing at mock-Russian Roulette. His last words to his friends were "Let’s see if I can do myself in this time!"

2019- Jojo Rabbit, a dark comedy by Taiko Waititti opened. Taiko’s producer told him, I’ll greenlight this project only if you play Hitler. He agreed.
Yesterday’s Question: What is the difference between India and Hindustan?

Answer: Before India’s independence in 1948, the region administered by the British was divided in enclaves based on their ethno-religious populations. So, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the various Rajahs principalities, and remainder with a predominant Hindu makeup called Hindustan.